American Depositary Receipt (ADR)

What it is:

An American Depositary Receipt (ADR) is a certificate that represents shares of a foreign stock owned and issued by a U.S. bank. The foreign shares are usually held in custody overseas, but the certificates trade in the U.S. Through this system, a large number of foreign-based companies are actively traded on one of the three major U.S. equity markets (the NYSE, AMEX or Nasdaq).

How it works/Example:

Investors can purchase ADRs from broker/dealers. These broker/dealers in turn can obtain ADRs for their clients in one of two ways: they can purchase already-issued ADRs on a U.S. exchange, or they can create new ADRs.

To create an ADR, a U.S.-based broker/dealer purchases shares of the issuer in question in the issuer's home market. The U.S. broker/dealer then deposits those shares in a bank in that market. The bank then issues ADRs representing those shares to the broker/dealer's custodian or the broker-dealer itself, which can then apply them to the client's account.

A broker/dealer's decision to create new ADRs is largely based on its opinion of the availability of the shares, the pricing and market for the ADRs, and market conditions.

Broker/dealers don't always start the ADR creation process, but when they do, it is referred to as an unsponsored ADR program (meaning the foreign company itself has no active role in the creation of the ADRs). By contrast, foreign companies that wish to make their shares available to U.S. investors can initiate what are called sponsored ADR programs. Most ADR programs are sponsored, as foreign firms often choose to actively create ADRs in an effort to gain access to American markets.

ADRs are issued and pay dividends in U.S. dollars, making them a good way for domestic investors to own shares of a foreign company without the complications of currency conversion. However, this does not mean ADRs are without currency risk. Rather, the company pays dividends in its native currency and the issuing bank distributes those dividends in dollars -- net of conversion costs and foreign taxes -- to ADR shareholders. When the exchange rate changes, the value of the dividend changes.

For example, let's assume the ADRs of XYZ Company, a French company, pay an annual cash dividend of 3 euros per share. Let's also assume that the exchange rate between the two currencies is even -- meaning one Euro has an equivalent value to one dollar. XYZ Company's dividend payment would therefore equal $3 from the perspective of a U.S. investor. However, if the euro were to suddenly decline in value to an exchange rate of one euro per $0.75, then the dividend payment for ADR investors would effectively fall to $2.25. The reverse is also true. If the euro were to strengthen to $1.50, then XYZ Company's annual dividend payment would be worth $4.50.

Why it Matters:

ADRs give U.S. investors the ability to easily purchase shares in foreign firms, and they are typically much more convenient and cost effective for domestic investors (versus purchasing stocks in overseas markets). And because many foreign firms are involved in industries and geographical markets where U.S. multinationals don't have a presence, investors can use ADRs to help diversify their portfolios on a much more global scale.

Best execution refers to the imperative that a broker, market maker, or other agent acting on behalf of an investor is obligated to execute the investor's order in a way that is most advantageous to the investor rather than the agent.