Net Profit Margin
What It Is:
Net profit margin is the percentage of revenue remaining after all operating expenses, interest, taxes and preferred stock dividends (but not common stock dividends) have been deducted from a company's total revenue.
How It Works/Example:
The formula for net profit margin is:
Let's look at a hypothetical income statement for Company XYZ:
Using the formula and the information above, we can calculate that Company XYZ's net profit margin was $30,000/$100,000 = 30%
Why It Matters:
Net profit margin is one of the most closely followed numbers in finance. Shareholders look at net profit margin closely because it shows how good a company is at converting revenue into profits available for shareholders.
Changes in net profit margin are endlessly scrutinized. In general, when a company's net profit margin is declining over time, a myriad of problems could be to blame, ranging from decreasing sales to poor customer experience to inadequate expense management.
Net profit margin is often used to compare companies within the same industry, in a process known as "margin analysis." Net profit margin is a percentage of sales, not an absolute number, so it can be extremely useful to compare net profit margins among a group of companies to see which are most effective at converting sales into profits.
If you'd like to read more in-depth information about margin analysis, check out the following:
Gross Profit Margin definition -- learn how gross profit margin is related to net profit margin.
Operating Margin definition -- learn how gross profit margin is related to net profit margin.