What it is:
How it works (Example):
For example, assume Company XYZ makes a device that can change red streetlights to green. It holds a patent on the technology and no other companies have been able to design competing devices. The "Red Light Green Light" device is priced at $1,000 but costs XYZ only $250 to make (a 75% gross profit margin). Company XYZ only makes 50,000 units per year, but the demand for the device is much higher.
Because there is no competition, and because the profit and demand are so high, Company XYZ is in a position to dictate the price of the device. As a price maker, it can raise the price of the device to $2,000 or even more as long as the demand for the device holds. It is important to note, however, that doing so may cause Company XYZ to break American antitrust laws.